He went down in history under the coronation name – Qin Shihuang.

He went down in history under the coronation name – Qin Shihuang.

The development of new territories begins. News of famine ceases to be found in ancient manuscripts. However, land use technology was in the process of formation. During the Middle Kingdom, large-scale drainage and irrigation works were carried out in the area of ​​Lake Meridovo (a new variety of grain – spelled – "Lower Egyptian" barley) is mentioned on the vacated squares, cereals were grown.

Physics

The invention of the water clock – hourglass (pocket, our Egyptian watch), sundial. A grand discovery of the ancient Egyptians – to reduce the friction of slaves poured oil under the skids of carts (during the construction of the pyramids). The doctrine of water appears – the basis of all things.

geography

The development and accumulation of geographical knowledge is associated with long sea voyages and expeditions up the Nile into the depths of Africa. Even during the Ancient Kingdom, the Egyptians sailed along the eastern, Asian shores of the Mediterranean Sea, exported cedar trunks from Lebanon, sailed along the shores of the Red Sea to the south in the country of Punt. At the beginning of the third millennium BC, one of these expeditions was led by the Egyptian Hannah.

The task of the expedition was to search for ivory, precious stones, fragrant resins and plants. Around 2000 BC. Egyptian Sinuhet made a great journey to the country of Kedem, ie to the east. 1500 years BC At the behest of the ruler of Egypt, Hatshepsut, an expedition was organized on the Red Sea coast. We have received pieces of detailed drawings of maps of desert mining.

literature

Avdiev VI History of the Ancient East – M: State Publishing House of Political Literature, 1953. Bongard-Levin GM Ancient Civilizations – M: Thought, 1989. Weiss G. History of the culture of the peoples of the world. Ancient Egypt. The birth of world civilization – M, 2005. World History, ed. Polyaka, Markova – M: UNITI, 1997 Ancient world http: // ancient. herodotus. ru / topics / data / egypt / index. htmEgyptian letter http: // ru. wikipedia. org / wiki / Egyptian_Letter The Egyptian Fusion System.http: // ru. wikipedia. org / wiki / Egyptian_Reading_Science of Ancient Egypt.http: // egypt-info. ru / about / sience / ancient_sience / mathematics. htmlPetrovsky, Matveev Egypt-son of millennia – Leningrad: Gos. Ed. Children’s. Literature, 1959. Technology and Science of Ancient Egypt http: // www. proegypt. info / 2-2. htmlEncyclopedia "Around the World" http: // www. round the world. ru /

05/11/2012

The Great Wall of China as the longest structure on Earth. Abstract

Chinese state and raids of nomads. The idea of ​​creating the Great Wall of China. The longest structure on Earth

The images of the Great Wall of China, known to everyone since childhood, do not create the right picture. They all belong to the latest part of it, near Beijing, where the wall is well preserved or specially restored for tourists. The most ancient parts of the wall, erected in the IV-III centuries BC, do not look like that at all. In most cases, they are located near topic for a narrative essay the passes and main roads, free-standing earthen ramparts, built by governors and princes of individual Chinese provinces to protect their possessions from nomads.

These fortifications sometimes reached a considerable length – stretched for tens of kilometers. And only hundreds of years later an attempt was made to combine them into one continuous structure. But a single line from the wall never came out. It acquired a complex branching shape, and in some places at a short distance from the main building parallel to it were other separately built walls. And when we talk about the Great Wall of China, we often mean this, the latest, completed in the middle of the XVI century, the Outer Wall of China, which really stretches continuously.

In order to understand the reasons for such an unusual building complex, we have to make a brief digression into the history of the Chinese state.

The Chinese state and the raids of nomads

In ancient times and in the Middle Ages, the steppes and deserts of northern and western China were inhabited by rebellious nomads. During the period of strengthening of the Chinese empire, its troops captured and temporarily conquered the inhabitants of those places, but from time to time the state weakened. China split into hostile areas, peasant uprisings killed a weakening ear, and then the roles changed: northern and western nomads invaded the interior, led captives and cattle, and sometimes captured the capital and brought to the throne of his protege.

This is how the Mongol and Manchu dynasties were based. China, on the other hand, absorbed the victors, dissolved them into millions of Chinese, taught its culture, its religion, and regained its independence a few decades later … or forgot that the descendants of the recent conquerors were on the throne.

But even in peacetime, nomads posed a danger to areas bordering the steppe and deserts. Zhou and especially the Huns periodically ravaged the border areas. Therefore, during the period of hostile kingdoms, Chinese princes and governors of border areas independently tried to find a remedy against enemy raids.

It is known that nomads did not have their own urban settlements and used to fight in the saddle. For the same reason, they could not storm the city. This skill will come later, when their descendants move west, conquering Asian, Russian and European countries. This significant shortcoming of the nomadic army, of course, could not go unnoticed by the attentive Chinese. And so earthen ramparts appeared along the borders of some Chinese provinces.

It is possible that detachments of nomads stopped in front of these ramparts and even retreated. However, the first shafts, for all their apparent power, found an unforgivable weakness: they had to be protected by someone. Busy with strife, the Chinese rulers forgot about the western borders. In addition, not in agreement with each other, they built such fortifications only along the border of their possessions, and such shafts could easily be bypassed from the flanks.

In the IV century BC. The Gin state stood out among the many warring Chinese kingdoms. It was quickly strengthened by the unusual for that time policy of the first imperial minister Shang Yan. This strong-willed man managed to reorganize the whole country militarily. In particular, if one citizen was at fault, his entire family and ten other neighboring families were responsible. Thus, instead of one criminal, the state received several dozen. Such domestic policy took root in China for a long time and was directly related to the emergence of the Great Wall of China.

The idea of ​​creating the Great Wall of China

In 246 BC. Zheng ascended the throne in the Qing state, continued to strengthen the young state, and a few years later, conquering the last independent principalities of China, proclaimed himself "the first emperor of Qin." He went down in history under the coronation name – Qin Shihuang.

He was a man of unbridled energy and vanity. Enormous construction was carried out under him.

Ancient legend has it that once a sleeping soul of Shihuangnda ascended to the moon and from there looked at the Earth. Due to the cloudy heights, the Chinese Empire seemed to him a small point, and then the emperor’s soul shrank when he saw the defenseless Celestial Empire. From then on, the idea was born in the emperor’s head to build a wall that would surround the entire empire, hide it from cruel barbarians, and make it a single family.

However, almost nothing has survived from the buildings of Qin Shihuang. It is known that in the emperor’s palace, on the second floor there was a hall which could accommodate ten thousand people. Of course, such construction required many workers. Qin Shihuang solved this problem with his characteristic scope and simplicity. Both prisoners of war and convicted groups of citizens were sent to forced labor. The Shang Yang principle, when many people were to blame for one, was not abolished, and the number of workers on Qin Shihuang’s large construction sites was constantly increasing.

Millions of people were busy building the imperial palace, a luxurious tomb, irrigation facilities and a giant border wall. Thousands, tens of thousands of people died every day, but new ones came in their place. The dead were simply walled up in the shutters, and for this reason the Great Wall of China is called the longest cemetery in the world.

Legend has it that a magician prophesied to Gin Shihuang that his great work could only be completed when a "van" (10,000 people) was buried in the building. The emperor found a man named Wang, ordered him killed and buried in the wall.

Qin Shihuang managed to build the foundation of the Great Wall of China, the world’s largest fortification, which failed to fulfill its role – to resist the onslaught of the Huns, but required so much strength and casualties that no war could match the losses in its construction.

After the fall of the Qin Dynasty, construction was temporarily interrupted and resumed under subsequent emperors, when it became clear that the raids did not stop and the nomads bypassed the wall from the south and north or overcame the unprotected areas.

As soon as a more or less strong dynasty came to power in China, capable of mobilizing several thousand men for grandiose construction, caravans again reached the wall, slaves died from overwork, and peasants were expelled from all the provinces.

And in the intervals between the stages of construction, the wall did not fulfill its task. It was repeatedly defeated by the Huns, and detachments of Altai Turks in the VII century, and the Mongols, who in 1449 managed to appear even within the walls of Beijing itself.

The latter circumstance forced the emperors of the Minsk dynasty to hurry with the completion of the wall. The Chinese rulers were convinced that as soon as the wall became so long that it could not be bypassed from the flanks, and as soon as there was no weakness left in it that the nomads could overcome, their country would be safe.

Finally, all the individual shafts and walls were united by a single outer wall that stretched along the entire border of the empire.

The longest structure on Earth

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